Discuss the importance of statistics in epidemiology for Advanced Practice Nursing. In judging risky behavior, which is more informative, relative risk or attributable risk? Think of this in terms of making a decision yourself or advising someone considering engaging in a risky behavior.

Response does not have a word count requirement however all questions have to be completely answered. I need 2-3 resources and they must be cited. Response must be in APA format.

**Expert Solution Preview**

Introduction: Statistics plays a crucial role in epidemiology for Advanced Practice Nursing. It provides a scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting health-related data, enabling healthcare professionals to evaluate the magnitude and impact of diseases in populations. This answer will discuss the importance of statistics in epidemiology for Advanced Practice Nursing and then compare the informativeness of relative risk and attributable risk in judging risky behavior.

Importance of Statistics in Epidemiology for Advanced Practice Nursing:

Statistics in epidemiology allow Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) to analyze and interpret health data, thus facilitating evidence-based decision-making. The key importance of statistics in epidemiology for APNs can be summarized as follows:

1. Describing Disease Burden: Statistics allow APNs to describe the prevalence and incidence of diseases in populations, including vulnerable groups. This information is vital for identifying at-risk populations and planning appropriate healthcare interventions.

2. Assessing Risk Factors: By utilizing statistical methods, APNs can analyze associations between various risk factors and diseases. Statistical analysis helps differentiate between independent and confounding variables, enabling APNs to identify modifiable risk factors that can be targeted for interventions.

3. Evaluating Interventions: Statistics in epidemiology assist APNs in evaluating the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions, medications, or treatment strategies. Through statistical modeling, APNs can estimate the impact of interventions on disease outcomes, contributing to evidence-based practice.

4. Disease Surveillance: Statistics enable APNs to monitor disease trends over time, allowing them to detect outbreaks, identify emerging diseases, and track the effectiveness of public health interventions.

Relative Risk vs. Attributable Risk:

When judging risky behavior, the choice between using relative risk (RR) or attributable risk (AR) depends on the specific decision-making context. Both measures provide valuable insights, but they capture different aspects of risk.

1. Relative Risk (RR): RR compares the risk of developing a disease or experiencing an outcome in an exposed group compared to an unexposed group. It quantifies the strength of the association between the exposure and the outcome. In terms of risky behavior, RR informs individuals or advisors about the increased likelihood of experiencing the undesirable outcome if engaging in such behavior. However, RR does not provide information about the actual risk or the baseline risk in the population.

2. Attributable Risk (AR): AR represents the proportion of disease occurrence attributed to a specific exposure. It quantifies the excess risk due to the exposure compared to the unexposed group. In terms of risky behavior, AR provides more informative data that can aid decision-making. By evaluating the AR, individuals or advisors can assess the potential impact of engaging in the behavior and understand the specific risk attributable to that behavior.

In the context of advising someone considering engaging in a risky behavior, AR is more informative than RR. AR provides a clearer understanding of the actual risk associated with the behavior, allowing for a more accurate assessment of the potential consequences. RR alone may overstate the risk if the baseline risk in the population is low, potentially leading to an exaggerated perception of the risk associated with the behavior.

In conclusion, statistics play a vital role in epidemiology for Advanced Practice Nursing. They provide APNs with essential tools to describe disease burden, assess risk factors, evaluate interventions, and monitor disease trends. When judging risky behavior, both relative risk and attributable risk provide valuable information. However, attributable risk is more informative in decision-making, as it specifically quantifies the excess risk attributable to the behavior being considered.

References:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice (3rd ed.). Retrieved from

2. Gordis, L. (2014). Epidemiology (5th ed.). Elsevier Saunders.

3. Hanley, J. A., & Lippman-Hand, A. (2001). If nothing goes wrong, is everything all right? Interpreting zero numerators. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(2), 222-223. doi:10.1001/jama.286.2.222