This week we are learning about ordinal/categorical, continuous, and dichotomous variables. Using the Gestation Demographics SEU dataset that is located in the tabs at the bottom of the Framingham dataset provided, perform the following problems using R Studio or Excel.

- Create a simple distribution graph (histogram) where we will explore the age of women after giving birth to their first child. Remember that a histogram consists of parallel vertical bars that show the frequency distribution of a quantitative variable in the graph. See the example in
*Introductory Statistics with R*on pages 71-7 or pages 123-124 in*EXCEL statistics A quick guide.*The area of each bar is equal to the frequency of items found in each class. - Determine the mean age of the women in the Gestation Demographics SEU dataset.
- We will be testing the hypothesis that the mean age (μ = μ0) for women is 37 years in the Gestation Demographics SEU dataset. The topic of hypothesis testing was introduced in HCM505. If you need a review see Chapter 7 of our text.

H0 The mean age of women giving birth is 37 years old. (Null Hypothesis)

H1 The mean age of women giving birth is not 37 years old. (Alternative Hypothesis)Ensure to submit the following requirements for the assignment:

- Present your findings in a Word document, by copying and pasting the histogram into the document.
- After your analysis state whether you accept or reject the null hypothesis and your reasoning why.
- Always use a title page, an introduction, a discussion where you interpret the meaning of the histogram, and a conclusion should be included.
- Your submission should be 2–3 pages to discuss and display your findings.
- Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of two scholarly, peer-reviewed articles. One of these sources may be from the class readings, textbook, or lectures, but the others must be external. The Saudi Digital Library is a good place to find these sources and should be your primary resource for conducting research.
- Follow APA 7th edition and Saudi Electronic University writing standards.

Review the grading rubric to see how you will be graded for this assignment.You are strongly encouraged to submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check prior to submitting them to your instructor for grading. Gestation_Demographics_SEU_2021.xlsx

**Expert Solution Preview**

Introduction:

In this assignment, we explore the Gestation Demographics SEU dataset to perform various statistical operations and hypothesis testing. Specifically, we will create a histogram to visualize the age of women after giving birth to their first child, calculate the mean age of women, and then use hypothesis testing to determine if the mean age is different from a predetermined value of 37 years. We will use R Studio or Excel for conducting these analyses.

1. Create a simple distribution graph (histogram) where we will explore the age of women after giving birth to their first child.

We can create a histogram using the “hist()” function in R Studio or “Histogram” tool in Excel. After creating the histogram, we can interpret the meaning of the graph based on the distribution of ages. For example, if the histogram shows a normal distribution, then most women gave birth around the mean age and fewer women gave birth at younger or older ages.

2. Determine the mean age of the women in the Gestation Demographics SEU dataset.

We can calculate the mean age of women using the “mean()” function in R Studio or “AVERAGE” function in Excel. The mean age provides a central tendency of the age distribution and can be used for comparison with other subgroups or populations.

3. We will be testing the hypothesis that the mean age (μ = μ0) for women is 37 years in the Gestation Demographics SEU dataset.

To test the hypothesis, we can use a t-test or z-test depending on the sample size and population variance. The null hypothesis will be that the mean age is 37 years and the alternative hypothesis will be that the mean age is not 37 years. After conducting the test, we can accept or reject the null hypothesis based on the level of significance (α), which is typically set at 0.05.

Conclusion:

In this assignment, we learned how to create a histogram and interpret the age distribution of women after giving birth to their first child. We also calculated the mean age and used hypothesis testing to determine if the mean age is different from a predetermined value of 37 years. By following the instructions and guidelines provided, we can effectively communicate our findings in a clear and concise manner.

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