TU Health & Medical Alcohol and Tobacco Use?? Discussion

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For the past 2 decades or so, researchers have viewed alcoholism from a “biomedical” point of view. Many researchers thought that it was only a matter of time before a gene for alcoholism would be found. Recently, many researchers have agreed that biology plays a role in addiction but suggest that biology is only one factor in the development of alcoholism. Based on what we know to date, discuss factors associated with alcoholism. Then, determine which factors programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous address in its 12 steps to recovery. Based on your findings, do you think the 12-step program is an effective method for alcoholism treatment? 

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Alcoholism is a complex disorder that has been studied extensively over the years. While initial research focused mainly on biomedical factors, such as the existence of a specific alcoholism gene, recent studies have shown that alcoholism is influenced by multiple factors. In this response, we will discuss the various factors associated with alcoholism and examine the extent to which programs like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) address these factors in their 12-step recovery program. Finally, we will evaluate the effectiveness of the 12-step approach in treating alcoholism.

Factors Associated with Alcoholism:

1. Biological Factors: While biology does play a role in the development of alcoholism, it is not the sole determinant. Genetic predisposition, brain chemistry, and hormonal imbalances can increase the risk of alcoholism. For example, certain genetic variations in enzymes responsible for metabolizing alcohol can affect how an individual responds to alcohol and increase their susceptibility to addiction.

2. Environmental Factors: Environmental factors, including peer influence, family history, and cultural norms, significantly contribute to alcoholism. Growing up in an environment where alcohol abuse is prevalent or having a family history of alcoholism increases the likelihood of developing the disorder. Moreover, societal attitudes and acceptance of alcohol consumption can also influence an individual’s drinking behaviors.

3. Psychological Factors: Co-occurring mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, or trauma, often coexist with alcoholism. Many individuals turn to alcohol as a coping mechanism to alleviate negative emotions or to self-medicate. Psychological factors like stress, low self-esteem, and impulsivity can also contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction.

Alcoholics Anonymous and the 12-Step Program:

Alcoholics Anonymous is a widely known and recognized support group for individuals struggling with alcoholism. The program is based on a set of 12 steps that provide a framework for recovery. These steps address multiple aspects of alcoholism and aim to promote self-reflection, accountability, and attaining abstinence from alcohol.

The 12 steps in AA primarily focus on the following factors associated with alcoholism:

1. Admitting Powerlessness: The first step acknowledges an individual’s lack of control over their addiction and the need for external help.

2. Surrendering to a Higher Power: AA promotes spirituality and encourages individuals to seek guidance and support from a higher power of their choice in their recovery journey.

3. Taking Inventory: Self-reflection and taking an honest inventory of one’s character defects, past mistakes, and patterns of behavior are crucial for personal growth and recovery.

4. Making Amends: Recognizing the harm caused to others due to addiction and making amends where possible is an important step in repairing relationships and finding forgiveness.

5. Seeking Support: AA emphasizes the importance of seeking support from a sponsor or a support network to navigate the challenges of recovery.

Effectiveness of the 12-Step Program:

The effectiveness of the 12-step program varies from individual to individual. While AA has been successful for many people, it is not the only approach to alcoholism treatment, and its effectiveness is debated among researchers and professionals in the field.

Some argue that the spiritual aspect of the program can be meaningful for individuals seeking guidance and structure in their recovery journey. The social support offered by AA can also be valuable, providing individuals with a sense of community and understanding.

On the other hand, critics argue that the 12-step program may not address all the factors contributing to alcoholism, such as the underlying psychological and environmental influences. Some individuals may not resonate with the spiritual aspect or may find it difficult to fully engage with the program.

Ultimately, the effectiveness of the 12-step program depends on an individual’s willingness to participate, their personal circumstances, and the availability of other treatment options. Combining the 12-step approach with evidence-based therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or medication-assisted treatment, may yield more comprehensive outcomes.


Alcoholism is a complex disorder influenced by various factors, including biological, environmental, and psychological elements. Alcoholics Anonymous and its 12-step program address some of these factors by promoting self-reflection, spirituality, and social support. While the effectiveness of the program may vary among individuals, it can be a valuable tool in alcoholism treatment when combined with other evidence-based approaches.

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