IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS:
Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.
Identify a zoonotic or vector-borne disease prevalent in a specific region of a developed or developing country. Complete a two-part informative assignment that includes both an illustrated and written component discussing the incidence and response to the disease.
Illustrate the following for the identified zoonotic or vector-borne disease:
- Create a diagram or flowchart: Describe the chain of infection (agent, host, and environment). Include the reservoir, routes of exposure, disease transmission. Illustrate the symptoms and identify susceptible populations.
- Identify one or more surveillance reports using the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) or National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) resources and discuss the methods used in data collection. Use a table or graph to present data from the report. Summarize the information of the report, including the burden of the disease and the morbidity and mortality rates in the region.
In a 500-750 word paper, evaluate the incidence and response to the identified zoonotic or vector-borne disease.
- Describe public health interventions used to treat or prevent the disease.
- Using One Health as at least one reference, discuss predictions for the future spread of the disease and how it will impact human, animal, and ecosystem health in this region.
- Propose strategies for containment and prevention. Discuss the necessary agencies and stakeholders important to addressing the issue.
You are required to cite at least FIVE sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the discussion question criteria and public health content.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is not required.
While APA style is required, solid academic writing is expected as well, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
PLEASE make sure APA citation and permalink for articles are complete and correct.
PLEASE add the links/sites below to the reference list if you use any of these readings and make sure everything is in proper APA format.
Read Chapter 3 in Understanding Environmental Health: How We Live in the World.
Read “Section 10: Chain of Infection,” in the Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice self-study course, located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website (2017).
Read “Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem,” by Gubler, from Emerging Infectious Diseases (1998).
Read “Potential Influence of Climate Change on Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases: A Review and Proposed Research Plan,” by Mills, Gage, and Khan, from Environmental Health Perspectives (2010).
Read “CDC and Food Safety,” located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Read “Challenges in Food Safety,” located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Explore the One Health Initiative website.
Explore the Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases website.
Explore the One Health concept on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Explore the Environmental Health Services page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Explore the World Health Organization (WHO) website.
Explore the CDC Wonder page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Explore the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Explore the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
MUST haveat least 5 citations with the page numbers and 5 references in APA format.(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)
Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class
I am a stickler for good organization in everything. I do not want to have to dig for your answers. For instance, if an assignment asks you to provide three examples of something, I suggest that you number them 1-3 so I can find them easily. I also expect that when you submit something as a narrative, you pay attention to how you organize your thoughts: use paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences; and change paragraphs whenever you introduce a new idea. Also, if there are multiple parts to an assignment, use sub-heads within the paper to organize them.
To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.
REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.
Expert Solution Preview
This assignment requires students to select a zoonotic or vector-borne disease prevalent in a specific region of a developed or developing country. The two-part informative assignment includes an illustrated and written component. The written assignment evaluates the incidence of the identified disease and public health interventions used to treat or prevent the disease. Students are required to propose strategies for containment and prevention and identify necessary agencies and stakeholders important to addressing the issue. Here are the answers to each question separately.
Answer to Part II:
The zoonotic disease that will be discussed in this paper is leishmaniasis, a vector-borne disease caused by the Leishmania parasite, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of sand flies. The disease is prevalent in many developing countries, including Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, Iran, Peru, and Syria. In this paper, we will focus on the incidence and response of the disease in Brazil.
To illustrate the chain of infection for leishmaniasis, we will use a diagram or flowchart. The agent is Leishmania parasites that exist in animals and humans and are transmitted through sandflies. The reservoir includes domestic and wild animals such as rodents, dogs, and foxes. The routes of exposure include sandfly bites, organ transplantation, or blood transfusion. Once infected, the disease can be transmitted from human to human through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and sharing needles. The symptoms of leishmaniasis include fever, weight loss, and anemia. Susceptible populations include people living in tropical and subtropical regions, especially those with weakened immune systems, young children, and HIV-positive individuals.
One surveillance report using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) resources is the Weekly Epidemiological Bulletin (BEE) published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The BEE has data on the incidence, prevalence, and lethality of infectious and parasitic diseases in Brazil. According to the NNDSS, the number of reported cases of leishmaniasis in Brazil decreased from 26,731 in 2014 to 25,218 in 2015. The burden of the disease in Brazil is high, with most cases reported in the Amazon region.
Answer to Part III:
The incidence of leishmaniasis has increased in Brazil in recent years due to urbanization, migration, and deforestation. Public health interventions used to treat or prevent the disease include vector control, diagnosis, and treatment of infected individuals. Vector control measures include the use of insecticides, bed nets, and repellents to prevent sandfly bites. Diagnosis is done using clinical signs, serology, microscopy, and molecular techniques. Treatment includes chemotherapy and supportive care for severe cases.
According to the One Health approach, the spread of leishmaniasis can be prevented by the control of sandflies, vaccination, and education of communities on disease prevention. In the future, climate change and environmental factors may impact the distribution of sandflies and lead to the emergence of new strains of the disease. This can have a significant impact on human, animal, and ecosystem health in Brazil. Therefore, it is essential to strengthen surveillance and control programs and implement effective prevention measures to contain the spread of leishmaniasis.
The strategy for containment and prevention of leishmaniasis includes a One Health approach, which recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and ecosystem health. This requires collaboration among different sectors, including health, environment, and agriculture. The necessary agencies and stakeholders include the Ministry of Health, vector control programs, public health authorities, environmental agencies, and veterinary services. These stakeholders are important in providing effective surveillance, control, and prevention strategies to manage the burden of leishmaniasis in Brazil.
The incidence of leishmaniasis in many developing countries is a significant public health issue. The current strategies to control the disease include prevention measures such as vector control, diagnosis, and treatment. The One Health approach is an effective and sustainable method for the control and prevention of leishmaniasis. In conclusion, implementing a One Health approach that involves a multidisciplinary effort is the key to effectively containing and preventing the spread of leishmaniasis in developing countries like Brazil.