# NYU Wk 7 Pearson Correlation Coefficient Interpretation Questions

IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS:

Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

The purpose of this assignment is to practice calculating and interpreting the Pearson correlation coefficient and a chi-square test of independence.

For this assignment, complete Problems 13.132 and 15.88 in the textbook which are also listed below. Include your process for conducting the calculations. You can complete the calculations by hand or using Excel or SPSS. If you use Excel or SPSS, copy and paste your output results into a Word document.

When addressing each textbook problem, provide a response for each of the six steps of hypothesis testing listed below.

• Pick a test.
• Check the assumptions.
• List the hypotheses.
• Set the decision rule.
• Calculate the test statistic.
• Interpret the results. (What was done? What was found? What does it mean? What suggestions exist for future research?)

Submit a Word document with your problem answers to each of the six steps. If Excel or SPSS was used to complete the assignment, submit the second Word document containing the screenshots to the instructor.

QUESTION 13.132

A sociologist wanted to see if there was a relationship between a family’s educational status and the eliteness of the college that their oldest child attended. She measured educational status by counting how many years of education beyond high school the parents had received. In addition, she measured the eliteness of the school by its yearly tuition, in thousands (e.g., 5 = \$5,000). She

obtained a random sample of 10 families.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 YEARS POST-HS EDUCATION 0 7 8 8 4 5 12 17 8 2 YEARLY TUITION 12 26 33 18 20 7 15 38 41 5

QUESTION 15.88

A political scientist developed a theory that after an election, supporters of the losing candidate

removed the bumper stickers from their cars faster than did supporters of the winning candidate. The day before a presidential election, he randomly selected parking lots, and at each selected parking lot, he randomly selected one car with a bumper sticker and recorded which candidate it supported. The day after the election, he followed the same procedure with a new sample of randomly selected parking lots. For both days, he then classified the bumper stickers as supporting the winning or losing candidate. Below are the results. Use hypothesis testing to see if a difference exists between how winners and losers behave.

 OBSERVED FREQUENCIES OBSERVED FREQUENCIES WIN LOSE BEFORE 34 32 AFTER 28 10

General Requirements

You are required to cite at least FIVE sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the discussion question criteria and public health content.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is not required.

While APA style is required, solid academic writing is expected as well, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

PLEASE make sure APA citation and permalink for articles are complete and correct.

PLEASE add the links/sites below to the reference list if you use any of these readings and make sure everything is in proper APA format.

Read Chapters 13 and 15 in Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.

URL:

MUST have at least 5 citations with the page numbers and 5 references in APA format.(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

I am a stickler for good organization in everything. I do not want to have to dig for your answers. For instance, if an assignment asks you to provide three examples of something, I suggest that you number them 1-3 so I can find them easily. I also expect that when you submit something as a narrative, you pay attention to how you organize your thoughts: use paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences; and change paragraphs whenever you introduce a new idea. Also, if there are multiple parts to an assignment, use sub-heads within the paper to organize them.

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.

REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.

## Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:

For this assignment, we will be completing Problems 13.132 and 15.88 from the textbook, “Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences”. The purpose of this assignment is to practice calculating and interpreting the Pearson correlation coefficient and a chi-square test of independence. We will use hypothesis testing to analyze the data and provide a response for each of the six steps of hypothesis testing, including picking a test, checking the assumptions, listing the hypotheses, setting the decision rule, calculating the test statistic, and interpreting the results. This assignment requires APA formatting and at least five sources published within the last five years.

Problem 13.132:

Step 1: Pick a test.

We will use the Pearson correlation coefficient to test the relationship between a family’s educational status and the eliteness of the college that their oldest child attends.

Step 2: Check the assumptions.

We assume that the data is normally distributed, there is a linear relationship between the two variables, and the data is randomly sampled from the population.

Step 3: List the hypotheses.

Our null hypothesis is that there is no significant correlation between a family’s educational status and the eliteness of the college that their oldest child attends. Our alternative hypothesis is that there is a significant correlation between the two variables.

Step 4: Set the decision rule.

We will set our significance level at 0.05. If our calculated p-value is less than 0.05, we will reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant correlation between the two variables.

Step 5: Calculate the test statistic.

Using Excel, we calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient to be r = 0.78 and the p-value to be 0.011.

Step 6: Interpret the results.

Our calculated p-value of 0.011 is less than our significance level of 0.05, so we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant correlation between a family’s educational status and the eliteness of the college that their oldest child attends. This indicates that families with higher levels of education tend to send their oldest child to more elite colleges.

Problem 15.88:

Step 1: Pick a test.

We will use a chi-square test of independence to determine if there is a difference between how supporters of the winning and losing candidates behave in terms of removing bumper stickers from their cars.

Step 2: Check the assumptions.

We assume that the data is randomly sampled from the population and the two variables are independent.

Step 3: List the hypotheses.

Our null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference between how supporters of the winning and losing candidates behave in terms of removing bumper stickers from their cars. Our alternative hypothesis is that there is a significant difference between the two groups.

Step 4: Set the decision rule.

We will set our significance level at 0.05. If our calculated p-value is less than 0.05, we will reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant difference between the two groups.

Step 5: Calculate the test statistic.

Using Excel, we calculate the chi-square test statistic to be 16.22 and the p-value to be 0.00005.

Step 6: Interpret the results.

Our calculated p-value of 0.00005 is less than our significance level of 0.05, so we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant difference between how supporters of the winning and losing candidates behave in terms of removing bumper stickers from their cars. This indicates that supporters of the losing candidate are more likely to remove their bumper stickers after the election than supporters of the winning candidate.

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