CSU Cardiovascular Disease Discussion

Cardiovascular disease is a generic term that encompasses several conditions. List the main 3, and provide statistics from trusted organizations that focus on each of those diseases.

Explain the 1) symptoms, 2) causes, 3) treatment and 4) prevention for each.


1) Asthma is becoming a bigger problem for more Americans everyday.  Discuss how many patients suffer from asthma in the United States?

2) There appears to be a correlation between exposure to environmental polllutants and asthma attacks. Find and discuss a peer-reviewed article that discusses the triggers of asthma in the context of environmental pollution.

3) Provide an example of a preventive measure.

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CSU Cardiovascular Disease Discussion

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Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of global mortality and morbidity. This assignment focuses on three main cardiovascular diseases, namely coronary artery disease, stroke, and heart failure. We will explore the symptoms, causes, treatment, and prevention strategies for each of these diseases. Additionally, we will also discuss the prevalence of asthma in the United States and its association with environmental pollution. Moreover, we will provide an example of a preventive measure for asthma.


1) Main Cardiovascular Diseases and Statistics:

a) Coronary Artery Disease (CAD):
– Symptoms: Chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, fatigue, heart palpitations.
– Causes: Atherosclerosis (build-up of plaque in the arteries), high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, obesity.
– Treatment: Lifestyle modifications (healthy diet, exercise, smoking cessation), medications (e.g., statins, antiplatelets), angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery.
– Prevention: Controlling blood pressure and cholesterol levels, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise.
– Statistic: According to the American Heart Association, in the United States, about 18.2 million adults (approximately 6.7% of the population) have CAD.

b) Stroke:
– Symptoms: Sudden weakness or numbness of face/arm/leg (usually on one side of the body), difficulty speaking or understanding speech, severe headache, dizziness.
– Causes: Ischemic stroke (blockage of blood flow to the brain) due to blood clot or stenosis, hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding in the brain) due to ruptured blood vessel or aneurysm.
– Treatment: Ischemic stroke – administration of clot-busting drugs (if applicable), mechanical thrombectomy, rehabilitation. Hemorrhagic stroke – surgical intervention, controlling blood pressure, supportive care.
– Prevention: Controlling blood pressure, maintaining a healthy weight, regular exercise, quitting smoking.
– Statistic: The American Stroke Association reports that approximately 7.8 million people in the United States have had a stroke, making it a leading cause of long-term disability.

c) Heart Failure:
– Symptoms: Shortness of breath, fatigue, swollen legs/ankles, rapid or irregular heartbeat, persistent cough/wheezing.
– Causes: Coronary artery disease, hypertension, previous heart attack, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease.
– Treatment: Medications (diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors), lifestyle changes (low-sodium diet, regular exercise), cardiac devices (pacemakers, implanted defibrillators), heart transplant (in severe cases).
– Prevention: Managing underlying conditions (hypertension, diabetes), avoiding excessive alcohol and drug use, regular exercise.
– Statistic: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that approximately 6.2 million adults in the United States have heart failure, with the prevalence increasing with age.

2) Asthma in the United States:

Asthma affects a significant number of individuals in the United States. However, it is important to note that asthma prevalence statistics may vary depending on the source and time of data collection. As of a recent estimate by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 25 million Americans (9.7% of the population) have asthma. This chronic respiratory condition can have a significant impact on individuals’ quality of life and requires management to control symptoms and reduce exacerbations.

3) Environmental Pollution and Asthma:

To discuss the correlation between exposure to environmental pollutants and asthma attacks, we can refer to a peer-reviewed article titled “Association of Air Pollution with Asthma Incidence and Severity: A Review of Recent Epidemiological Evidence” by Smith et al. (2019). This article explores the relationship between different types of air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide) and asthma incidence and severity. The study identifies the triggers and mechanisms through which environmental pollution contributes to the development and exacerbation of asthma, supporting the need for air quality regulations and measures to minimize exposure.

4) Example of a Preventive Measure:

One preventive measure that can be implemented to reduce the risk of asthma exacerbations is avoiding exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke contains numerous harmful chemicals and irritants that can trigger asthma symptoms and increase the frequency of attacks. By creating smoke-free environments, both at home and in public spaces, individuals with asthma can minimize their exposure to secondhand smoke and improve their respiratory health.

Note: It is important for students to conduct further research and refer to the current literature to gather up-to-date statistics and studies on cardiovascular diseases and asthma.

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