# Columbia Southern University Prevalence Ratios and Proportions Worksheet

Consider the following hypothetical scenario: The Idaho Kidney Center analyzed deaths among patients with kidney disease who were seen at their program from 1/1/2006 through 12/31/2011. A total of 2,965 deaths occurred during the observation period among the 22,735 study population. The table below gives the race and gender of the decedents and the total population.

 Characteristic Decedents (N = 2,965) Total Study Population (N = 22,735) GenderMaleFemale 1,7791,186 15,7486,987 RaceWhite, non-HispanicBlack, non-HispanicHispanicOther/Unknown 1,951523251240 12,9128,0661,230527

Using the scenario above, calculate and explain how to find the prevalence of Hispanics in the total study population. Then, calculate and explain how to find the ratio of males to females in the total study population. What is the proportion of Black, non-Hispanic decedents in this program? In addition, what is the proportion of White, non-Hispanic decedents in this study? Explain why this information is necessary for an epidemiological study.

Your response must be at least 500 words in length.

## Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:
In this scenario, we will analyze deaths among patients with kidney disease seen at the Idaho Kidney Center program from 1/1/2006 through 12/31/2011. We will use the provided data on the race, gender, and total population to calculate the prevalence of Hispanics in the total study population, the ratio of males to females in the total study population, and the proportion of Black and White non-Hispanic decedents in the program. We will explain the importance of this information in an epidemiological study.

Finding the Prevalence of Hispanics in the Total Study Population:
To find the prevalence of Hispanics in the total study population, we need to divide the number of Hispanics in the total study population by the total population and express the result in percentage. According to the table, there were 1,230 Hispanics in the total study population. Therefore, the prevalence of Hispanics in the total study population can be calculated as follows:

Prevalence of Hispanics = (Number of Hispanics in the Total Study Population / Total Population) x 100%
Prevalence of Hispanics = (1,230 / 22,735) x 100%
Prevalence of Hispanics = 5.4%

Therefore, the prevalence of Hispanics in the total study population is 5.4%.

Finding the Ratio of Males to Females in the Total Study Population:
To find the ratio of males to females in the total study population, we need to divide the number of males by the number of females. According to the table, there were 15,748 males and 6,987 females in the total study population. Therefore, the ratio of males to females in the total study population can be calculated as follows:

Ratio of Males to Females = Number of Males / Number of Females
Ratio of Males to Females = 15,748 / 6,987
Ratio of Males to Females = 2.25

Therefore, the ratio of males to females in the total study population is 2.25:1.

Proportion of Black, Non-Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Decedents in the Program:
To find the proportion of Black, non-Hispanic decedents in the program, we need to divide the number of Black, non-Hispanic decedents by the total number of decedents. According to the table, there were 523 Black, non-Hispanic decedents out of a total of 2,965 decedents. Therefore, the proportion of Black, non-Hispanic decedents in the program can be calculated as follows:

Proportion of Black, Non-Hispanic Decedents = Number of Black, Non-Hispanic Decedents / Total Number of Decedents
Proportion of Black, Non-Hispanic Decedents = 523 / 2,965
Proportion of Black, Non-Hispanic Decedents = 0.176 or 17.6%

Therefore, the proportion of Black, non-Hispanic decedents in the program is 17.6%.

To find the proportion of White, non-Hispanic decedents in the program, we need to divide the number of White, non-Hispanic decedents by the total number of decedents. According to the table, there were 1,951 White, non-Hispanic decedents out of a total of 2,965 decedents. Therefore, the proportion of White, non-Hispanic decedents in the program can be calculated as follows:

Proportion of White, Non-Hispanic Decedents = Number of White, Non-Hispanic Decedents / Total Number of Decedents
Proportion of White, Non-Hispanic Decedents = 1,951 / 2,965
Proportion of White, Non-Hispanic Decedents = 0.657 or 65.7%

Therefore, the proportion of White, non-Hispanic decedents in the program is 65.7%.

Importance of Information in Epidemiological Study:
The information on race, gender, and total population is necessary for an epidemiological study in several ways. Firstly, it helps in identifying health disparities between different racial and ethnic groups. By knowing the prevalence of different racial and ethnic groups in the population, healthcare providers and policy-makers can tailor their interventions to address the needs of these specific groups. Secondly, it helps in identifying risk factors for diseases that may vary by race, gender, and ethnicity. For example, a disease may have a higher incidence or prevalence in men than in women, or in one racial or ethnic group than in others. By identifying such factors, healthcare providers can develop targeted preventive measures and treatment plans. Overall, information on race, gender, and total population is important for developing and implementing effective health policies and interventions that ensure equitable healthcare access and outcomes for all individuals regardless of their race, gender, or ethnicity.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the scenario provided information on deaths among patients with kidney disease seen at the Idaho Kidney Center program from 1/1/2006 through 12/31/2011. We used this information to calculate the prevalence of Hispanics in the total study population, the ratio of males to females in the total study population, and the proportion of Black and White non-Hispanic decedents in the program. We also explained the importance of this information in an epidemiological study. The understanding of these concepts and calculations can help healthcare providers and policy-makers develop and implement effective measures to improve health outcomes and ensure equitable healthcare access for all individuals regardless of their race, gender, or ethnicity.

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